Excel Formula : MATHEMATICAL Formulas
Want to know about most of the Important Formulas in Excel? Read Excel Formulas Tutorial Page. 
Click on the below links for to know about all these Formulas and how to use them
ABS  CEILING  COMBIN  COUNTIF  EVEN  FACT  FLOOR  INT  MINVERSE  MMULT  MOD  ODD  PI  POWER  RAND  ROMAN  ROUND  ROUNDDOWN  ROUNDUP  SIGN  SUBTOTAL  SUM  SUMIF  SUMPRODUCT  TRUNC
ABS() Formula 
What this Formula does ?
It is short form of ABSolute value. It means this function returns always a absolute value of a Number whether it is Negative or Positive.
Syntax:
=ABS(Number)
Where:
Number : Numeric Value for which you want to know the absolute value.
Example:
Number  Absolute Value (Returned by the Function)  Formula Used 

10  10  =ABS(A1) 
32  32  =ABS(A2) 
10.5  10.5  =ABS(A3) 
From the above Example, it is clear that this function accepts any positive or negative value, but it returns as Absolute value only (without + or – sign)
CEILING() Formula  TOP^ 
What this Formula does ?
Basically CEILING returns the nearest multiple significance. The multiple significance is defined by user while writing this formula.
Syntax for the CEILING() Function:
=CEILING(number,significance)
Where:
Number: is the Number for which you want the nearest significance.
Significance: is the multiple to which you want to round off.
Remarks:
1. If any of the arguement is nonnumeric then formula will return #VALUE Error.
2. Sign of the number is not taken in to the consideration. It mean no matter whihc sign the number has, it will rounded off to the nearest multiple of significance. But for both the argument sign must be same. Refer example row number – 6.
3. If Number and Significance have different signs then formula will return #NUM! Error. Refer below example row number – 5
Example:
Number  Rounded Value  Formula used to get Rounded Value 

2.3  3  =CEILING(A1,1) 
1.8  2  =CEILING(A2,1) 
2.3  4  =CEILING(A3,2) 
35  60  =CEILING(A4,30) 
40  #NUM!  =CEILING(A5,30) 
40  60  =CEILING(A5,30) 
COMBIN() Formula  TOP^ 
What this Formula does ?
The COMBIN() This function calculates the highest number of combinations available based upon a fixed number of items. The internal order of the combination does not matter, so AB is the same as BA.
Syntax:
=COMBIN(number, number_choosen)
Where:
number : This is the number which tell how many items are there to group.
number_choosen : This tells how many items can be in each group.
Example:
Total Number of Items  Total Number of Items in Each Group  Total Number of Possible Combinations  Formula used to get this Combination 

4  2  6  =COMBIN(A1,B1) 
4  3  4  =COMBIN(A2,B2) 
10  2  45  =COMBIN(A3,B3) 
Note: Let’s take an example. We have 4 letters A, B, C and D. We need to calculate the total number of possible combinations made with 2 letters.
Below are the total number of possible combinations:
1  AB 
2  AC 
3  AD 
4  BC 
5  BD 
6  CD 
With the above example, it is clear that Out of 4 letters, if we try to make different combinations of letters then a maximum of 6 combination is possible. (considering AB=BA, AC=CA and so on.)
Now lets go back and check the above formula, that also return 6 for the input 4 and 2. refer row number 1 in the above Example.
COUNTIF() Formula  TOP^ 
What this Formula does ?
COUNTIF() is made with the combination of two keywords COUNT and IF. It means It COUNTs IF certain criteria is filfiled, which is provided by the user.
Syntax:
=COUNTIF(Range, Criteria)
Where:
Range : Range of items whihc you want to count. For example : Items in Range (A1:A30)
Criteria : This is the criteria, when matches then only item will be counted.
Example:
Data Table:
Date  Items  Price 

01Jul12  Nike  200 
10Jul12  Adidas  180 
01Jul12  Nike  220 
01Jul12  Liberty  100 
20Jul12  Nike  150 
10Jul12  Adidas  100 
20Jul12  Liberty  150 
01Jul12  Nike  150 
Now based on above data table lets take some scenarios:
How many Nike Shoes Have been bought.  4  =COUNTIF(B1:B8,”Nike”) 
How many Liberty Shoes been bought.  2  =COUNTIF(B1:B8,”Liberty”) 
How many items cost £150 or above.  6  =COUNTIF(C1:C8,”>=150″) 
Remarks:
The criteria can be typed in any of the following ways.
1. To match a specific number type the number, such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5,100)
2. To match a piece of text type the text in quotes, such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5,”Hello”)
3. To match using operators surround the expression with quotes, such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5,”>100″)
EVEN() Formula  TOP^ 
What this Formula does ?
The EVEN() Function round a number up the nearest even whole number.
Syntax:
EVEN(Number)
Where:
Number : Is the Number which you want to round off till the nearest Even Whole Number.
Example:
Original Number  Rounded Value  Formula used to get Rounded Value 

1  2  =EVEN(A1) 
1.2  2  =EVEN(A2) 
2.3  4  =EVEN(A3) 
35  36  =EVEN(A4) 
FACT() Formula  TOP^ 
What this Formula does ?
The FACT() Function calculates the factorial of a given Number.
Syntax:
FACT(Number)
Where:
Number : Is the Number which you want to calculate the Factorial.
Example:
Number  Factorial of the Number  Formula used to Calculate Factorial 

3  6  =FACT(A1) 
3.5  6  =FACT(A2) 
7  5040  =FACT(A3) 
15  1307674368000  =FACT(A4) 
Remarks:
Decimal points of the Number is ignored and Factorial is calculated on the Integer part only. Refer the above example Row 2.
FLOOR() Formula  TOP^ 
What this Formula does ?
Basically FLOOR returns the nearest multiple significance number towards Zero. The multiple significance is defined by user while writing this formula.
Syntax:
FLOOR(number,significance)
Where:
Number: is the Number for which you want the nearest significance.
Significance: is the multiple to which you want to round off.
Remarks:
1. If any of the arguement is nonnumeric then formula will return #VALUE Error.
2. Sign of the number is not taken in to the consideration. It mean no matter whihc sign the number has, it will rounded off to the nearest multiple of significance. But for both the argument sign must be same. Refer example row number – 6.
3. If Number and Significance have different signs then formula will return #NUM! Error. Refer below example row number – 5
Example:
Number  Rounded Value  Formula used to get Rounded Value 

1.5  3  =FLOOR(A1,1) 
2.3  2  =FLOOR(A2,1) 
2.9  2  =FLOOR(A3,2) 
199  150  =FLOOR(A4,50) 
40  #NUM!  =FLOOR(A5,30) 
190  150  =FLOOR(A5,50) 
Difference between FLOOR() and CIELING():
Both the above functions do the nearest multiple of the significance. The difference is that CIELING() round to the Next multiple of the significance while FLOOR() to the Previous multiple of the significance.
INT() Formula  TOP^ 
What this Formula does ?
Basically INT returns the nearest whole number.
Syntax:
INT(number)
Where:
Number: is the Number which you want to round off.
Number  Rounded Value  Formula used to get Rounded Value 

1.5  1  =INT(A1,1) 
2.3  2  =INT(A2,1) 
2.9  2  =INT(A3,2) 
1.99  2  =INT(A4,50) 
1.01  2  =INT(A5,30) 
MOD() Formula  TOP^ 
What this Formula does ?
Basically MOD() returns the nearest whole number.
Syntax:
MOD(number,divisor)
Where:
Number: is the Number for which you want to find the remainder.
Divisor: is the divisor by which you want to divide the number.
Number  Divisor  Remainder  Formula used to get Remaindernbsp; 

12  5  2  =MOD(A1,B1) 
20  7  6  =MOD(A2,B2) 
18  3  0  =MOD(A3,B3) 
9  2  1  =MOD(A4,B4) 
Remarks:
If divisor is 0, MOD returns the #DIV/0! error value.
ODD() Formula  TOP^ 
What this Formula does ?
The ODD() Function round a number up the nearest ODD whole number.
Syntax:
ODD(Number)
Where:
Number : Is the Number which you want to round off till the nearest ODD Whole Number.
Example:
Original Number  Rounded Value  Formula used to get Rounded Value 

2  3  =ODD(A1) 
2.4  3  =ODD(A2) 
2.9  3  =ODD(A3) 
3.5  5  =ODD(A4) 
PI() Formula  TOP^ 
What this Formula does ?
The PI() Function is eqaul to the Value of Pi
Syntax:
PI()
No Arguement for this Function.
Example:
This can be used where ever you want to use the value of Pi. Like in calculation of Area of a Circle.
Radius of the Circle  Area of the Circle  Formula used to Calculate Area 

5  78.54  =PI()*(A1^2) 
10  314.16  =PI()*(C22^2) 
POWER() Formula  TOP^ 
What this Formula does ?
The POWER() Function raises a number to a user specified power. It is the same as using the ^ operator , such as 3^4, which result is 81. or POWER(3, 4) also returns 81.
Syntax:
POWER(Number, Power)
Where:
Number : Is the Number on which power is raised.
Power : Is the power number which is to be raised on the number.
Example:
Number  Power  Result  Formula used to Calculate Power 

3  2  9  =POWER(A1, B1) 
3  4  81  =POWER(A2, B2) 
3  2  9  =A1^B1 
3  4  81  =A2^B2 
PRODUCT() Formula  TOP^ 
What this Formula does ?
The PRODUCT() Function calculates the multiplication of a Range of Numbers.
Syntax:
PRODUCT(Number1, Number2, Number3, ….)
OR
PRODUCT(Range)
Where:
Number1, Number2,… : are the series of numbers for which you want to find the multiplication.
Range : Is the range of the numbers which you want the multiplication.
Example:
Number 1  Number 2  Multiplication  Formula used to Calculate Multiplication 

3  2  6  =PRODUCT(A1, B1) 
3  4  12  =PRODUCT(A2, B2) 
RAND() Formula  TOP^ 
What this Formula does ?
The RAND() Function always returns random number which is >=0 but <1.
Syntax:
RAND()
No Arguement required for this.
Example:
Using this RAND() function, we can generate random numbers in different ranges. For example :
Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 1.  “Random Number”  =RAND() 
Random greater than or equal to 0 but less than 10.  “Random Number”  =RAND() * 10 
Random Number between 5 and 10..  “Random Number”  =RAND()*(105)+5 
ROMAN() Formula  TOP^ 
What this Formula does ?
The ROMAN() Function produces a number shown as Roman numerals in various formats.
Syntax:
ROMAN(Number, [form])
Where:
Number: is the number which you want to convert in Roman.
Form : is optional parameter. it has following values:
0 is Classic. This is used if no format is specified.
1 is more Concise.
2 is even more Concise.
3 is even more Concise still.
4 is Simplified.
TRUE is Classic
FALSE is Simplified
Example:
Number  Roman  Formula used for Roman 

1    =ROMAN(A1) 
2  II  =ROMAN(A2) 
10  X  =ROMAN(A3) 
1998  MCMXCVIII  =ROMAN(A4) 
1998  MCMXCVIII  =ROMAN(A5, 0) 
1998  MLMVLIII  =ROMAN(A6, 1) 
1998  MXMVIII  =ROMAN(A7, 2) 
1998  MVMIII  =ROMAN(A8, 3) 
1998  MVMIII  =ROMAN(A9, 4) 
1998  MCMXCVIII  =ROMAN(A10, TRUE) 
1998  MVMIII  =ROMAN(A11, FALSE) 
ROUND() Formula  TOP^ 
What this Formula does ?
The ROUND() Function rounds a number to a specified amount of decimal places.
Syntax:
ROUND(Number, num_digits)
Where:
Number: is the number which you want to round off.
num_digits : is number of digit till which you want to round off after decimal.
Example:
Number  Places to Round  Rounded off Number  Formula used to Round off Number 

1.47589  0  1  =ROUND(A1,B1) 
1.47589  1  1.5  =ROUND(A2,B2) 
1.47589  2  1.48  =ROUND(A3,B3) 
13643.47589  1  13640  =ROUND(A4,B4) 
13643.47589  2  13600  =ROUND(A5,B5) 
13643.47589  3  14000  =ROUND(A6,B6) 
Remarks:
1. If 0 is used the number is rounded to the nearest whole number.
2. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.
ROUNDDOWN() Formula  TOP^ 
What this Formula does ?
The ROUNDDOWN() Function rounds a number down to a specified amount of decimal places.
Syntax:
ROUNDDOWN(Number, num_digits)
Where:
Number: is the number which you want to round off.
num_digits : is number of digit till which you want to round off after decimal.
Example:
Number  Places to Round  Rounded off Number  Formula used to Round off Number 

1.47589  0  1  =ROUNDDOWN(A1,B1) 
1.47589  1  1.4  =ROUNDDOWN(A2,B2) 
1.47589  2  1.47  =ROUNDDOWN(A3,B3) 
13643.47589  1  13640  =ROUNDDOWN(A4,B4) 
13643.47589  2  13600  =ROUNDDOWN(A5,B5) 
13643.47589  3  13000  =ROUNDDOWN(A6,B6) 
Remarks:
1. If 0 is used the number is rounded to the nearest whole number.
2. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.
ROUNDUP() Formula  TOP^ 
What this Formula does ?
The ROUNDUP() Function rounds a number up to a specified amount of decimal places.
Syntax:
ROUNDUP(Number, num_digits)
Where:
Number: is the number which you want to round off.
num_digits : is number of digit till which you want to round off after decimal.
Example:
Number  Places to Round  Rounded off Number  Formula used to Round off Number 

1.47589  0  2  =ROUNDDOWN(A1,B1) 
1.47589  1  1.5  =ROUNDDOWN(A2,B2) 
1.47589  2  1.48  =ROUNDDOWN(A3,B3) 
13643.47589  1  13650  =ROUNDDOWN(A4,B4) 
13643.47589  2  13700  =ROUNDDOWN(A5,B5) 
13643.47589  3  14000  =ROUNDDOWN(A6,B6) 
Remarks:
1. If 0 is used the number is rounded to the nearest whole number.
2. If a negative amount of rounding is used the figures to the left of the decimal point are rounded.
SIGN() Formula  TOP^ 
What this Formula does ?
The SIGN() Function tests a value to determine whether it is positive or negative.
Note:
If the value is positive the result is 1.
If the value is negative the result is 1.
If the value is zero 0 the result is 0.
Syntax:
SIGN(Number)
Where:
Number: is the number for which you want to know the sign.
Example:
Number  Sign of the Number  Formula used to get Sign 

10  1  =SIGN(A1) 
20  1  =SIGN(A2) 
0  0  =SIGN(A3) 
10  1  =SIGN(A4) 
20  1  =SIGN(A5) 
SUM() Formula  TOP^ 
What this Formula does ?
The SUM() Function calculates the Sum of a Range of Numbers.
Syntax:
SUM(Number1, Number2, Number3, ….)
OR
SUM(Range)
Where:
Number1, Number2,… : are the series of numbers for which you want to find the Sum.
Range : Is the range of the numbers which you want the Sum.
Example:
Number 1  Number 2  Sum of the Numbers  Formula used to Calculate Sum 

3  2  5  =SUM(A1, B1) 
3  4  7  =SUM(A2, B2) 
SUMIF() Formula  TOP^ 
What this Formula does ?
SUMIF() is made with the combination of two keywords SUM and IF. It means It SUMs IF certain criteria is filfiled, which is provided by the user.
Syntax:
=SUMIF(Range, Criteria, [sum_range])
Where:
Range : Range of items which you want to examine aginst the criteria. For example : Items in Range (A1:A30)
Criteria : This is the criteria, which will be matched with the Range.
sum_range : This is range which items will be summed up on matching the corresponding criteria. This is an optional parameter. If you want to sum the items of same range where you are applying the criteria, then you can ignore this. Refer example row No3.
Example:
Data Table:
Date  Items  Price 

01Jul12  Nike  200 
10Jul12  Adidas  180 
01Jul12  Nike  220 
01Jul12  Liberty  100 
20Jul12  Nike  150 
10Jul12  Adidas  100 
20Jul12  Liberty  150 
01Jul12  Nike  150 
Now based on above data table lets take some scenarios:
Total Price of Nike Shoes.  720  =SUMIF(B1:B8,”Nike”,C1:C8) 
Total Cost of Liberty Shoes bought  250  =SUMIF(B1:B8,”Liberty”,C1:C8) 
Total cost of Items costing £150 or above.  1050  =SUMIF(C1:C8,”>=150″) 
SUMPRODUCT() Formula  TOP^ 
What this Formula does ?
This function uses at least two columns of values. The values in the first column are multipled with the corresponding value in the second column.
The Sum of all the values is the result of the calculation.
Syntax:
=SUMPRODUCT(Array1, Array2, Array3, ….)
Where:
Array1, Array2, … : are the Column Range which you want to multiply with and get the Total of all the multiplies.
Example:
Data Table:
Brands  Quantity Sold  Price of Each Quantity 

Nike  10  200 
Liberty  7  180 
Adidas  9  150 
Now based on above data table lets take some scenarios:
Total Sales Value.  4610  =SUMPRODUCT(B2:B4,C2:C4) 
How It Works:
Let’s take the Above Example. First It will take value from both the columns and start multiplying them for each row.
PRODUCT of ROW 1 : 10 * 200 = 2000
PRODUCT of ROW 2 : 7 * 180 = 1260
PRODUCT of ROW 3 : 9 * 150 = 1350
Now It will Total all the products of each Row: PRODUCT of ROW 1 + PRODUCT of ROW 2 + PRODUCT of ROW 3
Therefore the result is : 2000 + 1260 + 1350 = 4610
Note : For this minimum 2 column is required.
TRUNC() Formula  TOP^ 
What this Formula does ?
The TRUNC() Function truncates the decimal part of a number. It does not actually round the number.
Syntax:
TRUNC(Number, num_digits)
Where:
Number: is the number which you want to round off.
num_digits : is number of digit till which you want to truncate after decimal.
Example:
Number  Places to Truncate  Truncated Number  Formula used to Truncate the Number 

1.47589  0  1  =TRUNC(A1,B1) 
1.47589  1  1.4  =TRUNC(A2,B2) 
1.47589  2  1.47  =TRUNC(A3,B3) 
1.47589  2  1.47  =TRUNC(A3,B3) 
13643.47589  1  13640  =TRUNC(A4,B4) 
13643.47589  2  13600  =TRUNC(A5,B5) 
13643.47589  3  13000  =TRUNC(A6,B6) 
My name is Vishwamitra Mishra. Friends Call me Vishwa. This blog is authored by me. I am an Excel Geek. Well, this blog talks a lot about my passion in Excels & Macros so I’ll not talk about it :) I am very much passionate about traveling & quite recently discovered that I am a good photographer too..:P

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Please send me the work of counifs and sumifs function work
Very good articales easy to understand.